Statutory Audit

How will you do the audit of payroll or employee benefit expenses?

● Summarise the pay register on a month wise basis. ● Perform the analysis of month wise variance of gross pay and inquire reasons for major changes which are not substantiated by change in head count or payscale. ● Perform head count reconciliation procedure to match the number of employees each month i.e. (Opening employees…...

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What are the criteria to define a reportable segment as per IND AS 108?

An entity should report separately information about an operating segment that meets any of the following quantitative thresholds: ● Its reported revenue, including both sales to external customers and intersegment sales or transfers, is 10% or more of the combined revenue, internal and external, of all operating segments. ● The absolute amount of its reported…...

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What are the audit procedures for unusual Journal entries testing?

● Journal entries made to unrelated, unusual, or seldom-used accounts. ● Journal entries made by individuals who typically do not make journal entries. ● Journal entries containing consistent ending numbers (“999”). ● Journal entries with line items containing specific wording. ● Unbalanced journal entries. ● Journals recorded at the end of the period or as…...

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What are the audit procedures for Property, Plant & Equipment testing?

● Reconciling the FAR (Fixed assets register) and GL to ensure the accuracy of the books of accounts. ● Recalculation of the depreciation as per useful life (prescribed in Schedule II of Companies Act, 2013 or as per management estimate) and scrap value. ● TOD of Additions and disposals to ensure the completeness of the…...

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What are the audit procedures for Account Receivables testing?

● Ledgers, Agreements and other related supporting documents are obtained from the client to ensure the completeness & accuracy transaction ● Perform ageing analysis and check whether there is any need for making provision for doubtful debts for long outstanding balances. ● Independent external Confirmations are sent to the customers and their response are noted…...

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Explain the concept of cut off procedure?

Cutoff procedures are undertaken to check whether all income and expenses are reported in the correct accounting period. Simply put, Cut off procedures are performed for separation of transactions from one period to another (say, upto 31st March and after 31st March). This ensures that transactions and events are recorded in the correct accounting period…...

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What is the special purpose audit report and general purpose audit report?

Special Purpose Report: A special-purpose financial report is intended for presentation to a limited group of users or for a specific purpose. For example, special-purpose financial statements are prepared for tax reporting, bank reporting, and industry-specific reporting. Most SME’s (Small to Medium Enterprises) and not for-profit entities will produce a simple profit and loss and…...

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What are the components of Materiality? /What is Performance Materiality and why is it set?

Materiality are of 3 types: Overall Materiality (OM)- The level which represents the significant level in the company’s financial statements, which can influence the decision making of the users of the company’s financial statement as a whole. Performance Materiality(PM) – The amount set by us as auditor at less than the Overall Materiality, so that…...

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What do you understand by Materiality? How and on what basis an auditor assesses materiality?

The materiality threshold in audits refers to the benchmark used to obtain reasonable assurance that an audit does not fail to detect any material misstatement that can significantly impact the economic decision of users of financial statements. Determining materiality involves the exercise of professional judgment. A percentage is often applied to a chosen benchmark as…...

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What are account balance assertions ?

Account balance assertions apply to the balance sheet items, such as assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity. There are four types of account balance assertions: ● Existence: The assets, equity balances, and liabilities exist at the period ending time. ● Completeness: The assets, equity balances, and the liabilities that are completed and supposed to be recorded…...

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What are Transaction level assertions?

Transaction level assertions are made in relation to classes of transactions, such as revenues, expenses, dividend payments, etc. There are five types of transaction-level assertions: ● Occurrence: Transactions that are recognized in the financial records have occurred, i.e.,did it really happen? ● Completeness: Transactions that are completed and supposed to be recorded have beenrecognized in…...

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Caro amendments related to CSR

The Companies (Auditor’s Report) Order (CARO) is a regulatory framework in India that mandates the reporting requirements for statutory auditors of companies. The latest amendments to CARO, known as CARO 2020, introduced certain changes related to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) reporting. Here are some key provisions: 1. Assessment of CSR Expenditure: Under CARO 2020, auditors…...

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Why audit committee is entrusted with RPT approval and not any other committee

The audit committee is typically entrusted with the approval and oversight of related party transactions (RPTs) due to its specific role and responsibilities within an organization. The audit committee is a subcommittee of the board of directors and is composed of independent directors who possess financial expertise and knowledge of corporate governance practices. There are…...

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Why do you think audit should be conducted? If there was no statutory requirement under companies act, would you still do an audit?

Audit is conducted to provide assurance and enhance the credibility of financial information presented by an organization. It serves several important purposes: 1. Compliance: Audit ensures that the financial statements and records of an organization comply with applicable laws, regulations, and accounting standards. It helps in verifying the accuracy and completeness of financial information, thereby…...

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Planning and Execution in audit

Planning and execution are essential components of the audit process. Here’s an overview of how they are approached: 1. Planning: Audit planning involves understanding the client’s business, identifying risks, and developing an audit strategy. This includes: – Client Assessment: Assessing the client’s industry, business operations, and internal control systems to understand the key risks and…...

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Why stat audit? Why big 4 even after hectic hours?

Statutory audit offers several benefits that make it an attractive choice for professionals, especially in the context of Big 4 firms: 1. Professional Growth: Statutory audit provides an opportunity to work with diverse clients across various industries, which enhances professional growth and expertise. It allows auditors to gain a deep understanding of different business models,…...

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How to manage a team and client

Managing a team and client effectively requires a combination of strong leadership skills, effective communication, and a customer-centric approach. Here are some key strategies for managing both aspects: 1. Clear Communication: Maintain open and transparent communication channels with both your team members and clients. Clearly articulate expectations, project goals, and deadlines to ensure everyone is…...

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Tell us about your Article ship challenges.

During my articleship, I encountered various challenges that allowed me to grow both personally and professionally. One of the key challenges I faced was managing tight deadlines and multiple client engagements simultaneously. As an article trainee, I had to balance my time effectively to ensure timely completion of audit assignments and other responsibilities. Another challenge…...

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Tell us about your articleship focus.

During my articleship, my focus was primarily on gaining practical experience and exposure in the field of auditing and financial accounting. I worked under the guidance of experienced professionals in a reputed firm, which provided me with valuable opportunities to enhance my skills and knowledge. One of my main areas of focus during my articleship…...

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Common Observations or audit points in Procure to Pay Process

During the audit of the Procurement-to-Pay (P2P) process, there are several common issues or observations that auditors often encounter. These issues can lead to inaccuracies, inefficiencies, compliance breaches, and financial losses. Here are some common audit issues or observations in the Procurement-to-Pay process: 1. Lack of Segregation of Duties (SoD): One of the primary concerns…...

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Tell us about your observations in audit.

Here are some examples you can use 1. Misclassification of Air Conditioners/other appliances as Office Equipment ACs, whether installed in Factory or in Office should be treated as Plant and Machinery with 15 Years useful life. But they are often misclassified as Office Equipment with 5 years useful life under Schedule II of Companies Act…....

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How will you verify cash if its not possible to attend physical verification? Any specific procedures for covid?

In situations where it is not possible to attend physical verification of cash, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic or other circumstances, auditors can employ alternative procedures to verify the existence and accuracy of cash balances. To verify cash: 1. Ask for the cash to be deposited in a bank and withdrawn 2. Do a…...

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What is Bank Confirmation? Who Sends it?

Bank confirmation, also known as a bank confirmation letter or bank confirmation request, is a formal inquiry sent by the auditor to the company’s financial institution(s) to obtain independent verification of the client’s bank balances, loans, and other related information. The bank confirmation serves as an important audit procedure to confirm the accuracy and completeness…...

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Which balance would you like to verify the most while conducting statutory Audit? What is BRS (Bank Reconciliation Statement)? How do you use BRS in audit of cash balance?

As a statutory auditor, one of the most critical balances to verify is the cash balance. Cash is a highly liquid asset and is susceptible to misappropriation or misstatement, making it essential to ensure its accuracy. To verify the cash balance, an auditor may adopt the following procedures: 1. Bank Reconciliation: The auditor performs a…...

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How do you check completeness assertion while performing audit of accounts payable?

When performing an audit of accounts payable, ensuring the completeness assertion is crucial. Here are some procedures an auditor may adopt to check completeness: 1. Review of Purchase Requisitions and Orders: The auditor can examine the company’s purchase requisitions and purchase orders to verify that all authorized purchases have been properly recorded. This helps ensure…...

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How will you test the warranty in revenue?

When testing the warranty in revenue, the auditor may adopt the following procedures to ensure its accuracy and completeness: 1. Review of Warranty Policies: The auditor should understand the company’s warranty policies and procedures. This includes reviewing the terms and conditions of warranties, the length of the warranty period, and any specific criteria or limitations…....

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There are 50 bank accounts having no balance, 120 bank accounts having very minimum balance then what procedures will you adopt to verify them?

When dealing with bank accounts that have no balance or very minimum balance, the auditor may adopt the following procedures to verify them: 1. Inquiry and Documentation Review: The auditor can inquire with the management about the purpose and nature of these bank accounts. Additionally, they can review the account opening documents, bank statements, and…...

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Suppose the company is a big brand in Pen manufacturing industry holding more than 150 bank accounts having balance of 1000cr. What audit procedures will you adopt? Will you verify all the bank accounts or else do some sampling checks? Reason if you verify all the bank accounts?

When dealing with a company that has a large number of bank accounts and a significant balance, it may not be practical or efficient to verify each individual bank account during the audit process. In such cases, auditors often employ sampling techniques to select a representative sample of bank accounts for detailed verification. The decision…...

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Other than balance confirmation what procedures will you adopt for audit of cash and bank balance?

Apart from balance confirmation, there are several procedures an auditor can adopt for the audit of cash and bank balances. These procedures aim to provide sufficient and appropriate audit evidence regarding the existence, ownership, completeness, and valuation of cash and bank balances. Some of these procedures include: 1. Bank Reconciliation: Obtain and review bank reconciliations…...

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If a company have two Government companies as clients which are comprising of almost 30% of trade receivables and they are not responding to management at all, how will you respond as an auditor?

As an auditor, if two government companies comprising approximately 30% of trade receivables are not responding to the management, it is a matter of concern that requires appropriate action. The following steps can be taken in response to this situation: 1. Communication: Engage in direct communication with the management of the audited company to express…...

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If you have debtors balance of Rs 2 crore, and having more than 200 customers then as Statutory Auditor of the Company how will you verify the same?

As the Statutory Auditor of the company, verifying a debtors balance of Rs 2 crore with more than 200 customers requires a systematic approach to ensure accuracy and completeness. The following steps can be taken: 1. Planning: Develop an audit plan specifically tailored to address the large number of customers and the significant debtors balance…....

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How you deal if the balance confirmation is mismatch while conducting audit of trade receivables.

When encountering a mismatch in balance confirmation while auditing trade receivables, the following steps can be taken to resolve the discrepancy: 1. Review Documentation: Carefully review the correspondence between the audited entity and its customers regarding the balance confirmation requests and responses. Examine the terms, dates, and any relevant supporting documentation, such as invoices, contracts,…...

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Difference between virtual certainty and reasonable certainty?

In the context of financial reporting and accounting, “virtual certainty” and “reasonable certainty” are terms used to describe the level of confidence or likelihood associated with the recognition and measurement of certain events or amounts. While they both imply a high degree of confidence, there is a subtle difference between the two: 1. Virtual Certainty:…...

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On what basis performance materiality is set and what are the criteria to set it or change it? If you want to change it what things are to be kept in mind?

Performance materiality is the level of materiality set for specific accounts or classes of transactions during an audit. It is determined by the auditor based on their professional judgment and considers the overall financial statements’ materiality level. When setting performance materiality, auditors consider several factors: 1. Overall materiality: The materiality level for the financial statements…...

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What do you mean by walkthroughs and control testings?

In the context of auditing, walkthroughs and control testing are two important procedures used to assess the effectiveness of a company’s internal controls. Walkthroughs: A walkthrough is a step-by-step review of a process or system to gain an understanding of its design and operation. It involves following a transaction from its initiation to its final…...

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What is MRL and why it is used and who takes it? If not received, then what will be the effect on audit opinion in audit report?

MRL stands for Management Representation Letter. It is a letter obtained by the auditor from the management of the audited entity. The purpose of the MRL is to document management’s acknowledgement of its responsibility for the financial statements and to confirm various representations made to the auditor during the audit process. The MRL is used…...

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If debtors’ confirmations are not received, then how would you deal with this kind of situation?

If faced with a situation where debtors’ confirmations are not received during an audit, the following steps can be taken: 1. Alternative Audit Procedures: In the absence of debtor confirmations, the auditor can employ alternative audit procedures to obtain sufficient and appropriate audit evidence. This may involve performing analytical procedures, such as comparing the debtor…...

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Why due diligence is performed on Audited Financials?

Performing due diligence on audited financials is essential to gain a deeper understanding of a company’s financial health and identify any potential risks or inaccuracies. Here are the key reasons why due diligence is conducted on audited financials: 1. Verification of Financial Information: Audited financial statements are prepared by independent auditors who examine and verify…...

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How to check purchase whether real or inflated?

To check whether a purchase is real or inflated, you can perform the following procedures during an audit: Review purchase orders: Examine the purchase orders for accuracy, completeness, and proper authorization. Ensure that they include detailed descriptions of the goods or services being purchased, quantities, prices, and delivery terms. Verify supplier existence and credibility: Confirm…...

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What are the major audit areas?

Major audit areas, also termed audit components or cycles, encompass distinct sections of an organization’s financial statements and operations, focal points for auditors during audits. These areas facilitate methodical assessment of financial statements to ensure precision, adherence to accounting standards, and robust internal controls. Key audit areas encompass: Cash and Cash Equivalents: Validation of cash…...

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What are controls? How are they different from Procedures?

Controls are mechanisms put in place within an organization to ensure that business processes, activities, and transactions operate effectively, efficiently, and in line with desired objectives. They encompass a range of policies, procedures, practices, and technologies aimed at preventing errors, reducing risks, and ensuring compliance. Procedures, on the other hand, are specific step-by-step instructions or…...

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What is Internal Audit?

Internal Audit, as defined by the Companies Act 2013 (Section 138), is an independent and objective assurance activity designed to add value and improve an organization’s operations. It helps accomplish organizational objectives by evaluating and improving the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes. Internal auditors provide insights, recommendations, and assurance to management and…...

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What do you mean by assertions?

DEFINITION OF ASSERTION: It refers to the representations by management, explicit or otherwise, that are embodied in the financial statements, as used by the auditor to consider the different types of potential misstatements that may occur. In preparing financial statements, Company’s management makes implicit or explicit claims (i.e. assertions) regarding: A. Completeness; B. Existence/ occurrence;…...

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What do you mean by Nature, Timing and Extent of Audit?

In auditing, the “Nature, Timing, and Extent of Audit” refer to critical factors that auditors consider when planning and conducting an audit engagement. These factors are addressed in the Standard on Auditing (SA) 200 – “Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with Standards on Auditing.” Reference: SA…...

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What is sampling? How do you choose samples? Sampling Methods? ‘Audit sampling’ refers to

Sampling is a technique used in various fields, including auditing, to select a representative subset of items from a larger population. It is employed when it is not feasible or practical to examine every single item within the population. Sampling helps draw conclusions about the entire population based on the analysis of the selected sample…....

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If there is the factory and there is the fire in that factory and the machine was rendered un-useable and then we sold the machine for scrap, 100,000 was the original value and 50,000 was the written down value showing on the books and the scrap value is 10,000 and from insurance company we were able to recover 30,000, and we purchase another machine to replace the machine for 100,000. How to record the transaction?

Note: This is assuming all transactions are in the same period. If Fire is in Year 1 and Recovery is in Year 2, impairment will be done in Year 1 For the sale of scrap and receivable from Insurance company the entry is Bank a/c Dr 10,000 Insurance Receivable/ Bank a/c Dr 30,000 Loss on…...

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Difference between research and development?

Research is original and planned investigation undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding. Development is the application of research findings or other knowledge to a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved materials, devices, products, processes, systems or services before the start of commercial production…...

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What is the substantial period under Ins As for capitalizing borrowing cost w.r.t qualifying assets?

Generally, a period of 12 months is considered as a substantial period unless a shorter or longer period can be justified based on facts and circumstances of the case. Borrowing costs are capitalized in the books of accounts with the qualifying assets when it is certain that it will have future economic benefits. Favorite… To...

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IND AS 16 : What is the concept of Component accounting as per Ind AS 16 ? Why Component Accounting is used ?

Each major part of an item of PPE with cost being significant in relation to total cost of the item, should be depreciated separately, even though it may not have different useful life, but may be grouped for determining depreciation charge. Component accounting requires a company to identify and depreciate significant components with different useful…...

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Ind AS 16 : What is the Deemed cost exemption as per Ind AS 16?

As per Ind AS 101, the deemed cost exemption is applicable to PPE as defined under Ind AS 16 and recognised as Fixed Assets in the financial statements at the transitional date irrespective of whether these were disclosed separately. Favorite… To get access, please buy CA Interview Question Bank...

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Ind AS 40 : Definition of Investment property?

IAS 40 permits treatment of property interest held in an operating lease as investment property, if the definition of investment property is otherwise met and fair value model is applied. In such cases, the operating lease would be accounted as if it were a finance lease. Favorite… To get access, please buy CA Interview Question...

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IND AS 19 (Employee Benefit) ?

The Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 19 aims to prescribe accounting and disclosure for employee benefits. It requires recognition of the liability by an entity when an employee provides services for employee benefits to be paid in the future, and recognition of expenses when the entity utilises the economic benefit arising from service given by…...

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Ind As 102 ( share based payment ) : how you will record share based payment in books, what other implications of shared based payment would be possible?

• Detailed guidance available for accounting and disclosures of equity-settled and cash-settled transactions in Ind AS 102 • Ind AS 102 also covers share based payment transactions with non-employees as well. Favorite… To get access, please buy CA Interview Question Bank...

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What is window dressing?

What is Window Dressing? Window dressing is actions taken to improve the appearance of a company’s financial statements. Window dressing is particularly common when a business has a large number of shareholders, so that management can give the appearance of a well-run company to investors who probably do not have much day-to-day contact with the…...

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What is related party as per various laws? – Companies Act, Ind AS, GST, Income Tax

As per 2(76) of Companies Act: a. a director or his relative; b. a key managerial personnel or his relative; c. a firm, in which a director, manager or his relative is a partner; d. a private company in which a director or manager or his relative is a member or director; e. a public…...

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What is segment reporting criteria?

An operating segment is a component of an entity: (a) that engages in business activities from which it may earn revenues and incur expenses (b) whose operating results are regularly reviewed by the entity’s chief operating decision maker (CODM) to make decisions about resources to be allocated to the segment and assess its performance; and…...

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What is minority interest?

Ind AS 110 defines Non Controlling Interest (earlier called Minority Interest) – NCI is Equity in a subsidiary not attributable, directly or indirectly, to a parent. Minority Interest also referred to as non-controlling interest (NCI), is the share of ownership in a subsidiary’s equity that is not owned or controlled by the parent corporation. Favorite…...

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What are the things to be kept in mind while Auditor’s appointment and Rotation?

The major factors that are considered in selecting and retaining an auditor include the size of the audit firm, the status of ongoing auditor engagements, the cost of the auditor firm service and the specialty of service the auditing firm offers. one key consideration is the independence of the auditing process as history and research…...

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What are the DTA creation criteria as per Ind AS and how they are different from AS?

As per IND AS 12, deferred tax asset is recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary difference can be utilised. The criteria for recognising deferred tax assets arising from the carry forward of unused tax losses and tax…...

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What are the disclosure requirements of Disclosure note 1 of financial statements?

The notes shall: (a) present information about the basis of preparation of the financial statements and the specific accounting policies used in accordance with paragraphs 117–124; (b) disclose the information required by Ind ASs that is not presented elsewhere in the financial statements; and (c) provide information that is not presented elsewhere in the financial…...

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On what basis performance materiality is set and what are the criteria to set it or change it? If you want to change it what things are to be kept in mind?

“The amount set by the auditor at less than materiality for the financial statements as a whole to reduce to an appropriately low level the probability that the aggregate of uncorrected and undetected misstatements exceeds materiality for the financial statements as a whole.” The performance materiality aims to reduce the impact of materiality. performance materiality…...

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How do you ensure completeness and accuracy of financial statements?

Ensure the accuracy of the data entry process, which involves journal entries of financial transactions and the posting of journal entries to the ledger which can be done by Automated data entry process, cross-checking the first data entries and assimilating a suite of technology-based and manual data entry techniques The next step towards the accuracy…...

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What do you mean by debt extinguishment?

Debt extinguishment occurs when a debt instrument is terminated. This occurs when the borrower repays the lender or bonds are retired by the issuer. Extinguishment may not involve full repayment of a debt; the two parties may agree on a lesser repayment amount if the borrower is unable to make a full repayment of the…...

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What do you understand by debt covenant?

Debt covenants can simply be defined as agreements between the business and the creditors. Under this, the borrowing company is supposed to abide by certain conditions, in order to be entitled to receive the loan. If those conditions are not met, the borrower is considered to be a defaulter. For instance, “the borrower shall not…...

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Difference between virtual certainty and reasonable certainty?

Virtual certainty determination is a matter of judgement to be evaluated on a case to case basis , should be supported by convincing evidence, i.e., evidence available at reporting date in concrete form and cannot be based merely on forecasts of performance Reasonable certainty would normally be achieved by examining past records of the enterprise;…...

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What do you mean by walkthroughs and control testing?

A walkthrough test is an examination of each step involved in a transaction. A transaction is traced right from the beginning to the end to understand the process flow A walkthrough test is an auditing technique that examines a process from initiation to completion. It is done on a very small sample – it may…...

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What is MRL and why it is used and who takes it? If not received, then what will be the effect on audit opinion in audit report?

(1) It is a written statement by management provided to the auditor to confirm certain matters or to support other audit evidence. (2) It does not include financial statements, the assertions therein, or supporting books and records. (3) The auditor shall request management to provide a written representation that it has fulfilled its responsibility for…...

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If debtors’ confirmations are not received, then how would you deal with this kind of situation?

We need to perform alternative audit procedures to larger items- By verifying the subsequent cash receipt to see if customers have paid for those invoices that were not confirmed, sales and shipping documents or By visiting debtors’ places or By communicating through other modes. Favorite… To get access, please buy CA Interview Question Bank...

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If company is having Going concern issue, then as an auditor what are the requirements to bekept in mind while auditing and what will be the impact on audit opinion in audit report?

The auditor should evaluate whether Sufficient and appropriate audit evidence has been obtained and conclude on appropriateness of management use of going concern basis of accounting in preparation of Financial Statements 2) Based on audit evidence obtained, conclude whether material uncertainty exists related to events or conditions that, individually or collectively, may cast significant doubt…...

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What is the use and purpose of Excel Pivot Table, VLOOKUP, HLOOKUP, SUMIF, and Index Match?

● Pivot Table is an interactive way to quickly summarize large amounts of data. It is used to summarize, sort, reorganize, and group. It allows us to extract the significance from a large, detailed data set. ● VLOOKUP: It is a function that makes Excel search for a certain value in a column, to return…...

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Deferred tax asset and liabilities

Deferred tax asset When profits as per tax laws is more than profits as per books of accounts, A deferred tax asset is required to be created. Deferred Tax Asset journal entry Deferred Tax Asset A/C……. Dr To Profit & Loss A/C………. It is shown under the head of Non Current Assets in the balance…...

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What are the Golden Rules of Accounting?

Golden Rules of Accounting: 1 Debit The Receiver, Credit The Giver 2 Debit What Comes In, Credit What Goes Out 3 Debit All Expenses And Losses, Credit All Incomes And Gains Different types of Accounts: ❖ Personal: Personal Accounts are the ones that are related with individuals, companies, firms, group of associations etc. Eg Veer’s…...

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What is CFS? Components of CFS? What is the treatment of depreciation in CFS?

● A cash flow statement (CFS) is a financial statement that summarizes the amount of cash and cash equivalents entering and leaving a company. ● The CFS measures how well a company manages its cash position, meaning how well the company generates cash. ● The CFS complements the balance sheet and the income statement. ●…...

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Suppose there are two companies- Company A and Company B. What points will you check to ensure consolidation of both companies?

For Consolidation of company A and Company B we should check the relationship among the companies such as:- a. If company A holds more than 50% shares in company B, then Holding subsidiary relationship is established. b. If company A holds more than 20% shares in company B, then company A is an Associate of…...

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Differences between Contingencies and Reserves

Contingencies A contingency reserve is retained earnings that have been set aside to guard against possible future losses. A contingency reserve is needed in situations where a business occasionally suffers significant losses, and needs reserves to offset those losses. Reserves Reserves are part of profits or gain that has been allotted for a specific purpose…....

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Journal Entries and Differences between Bad Debts and Provision for doubtful debts

Bad Debts Bad Debts amount to that portion of the debts which are either irrecoverable or whose probability of recovery is very rare. Bad Debt Account (Debit), Debtor’s Account (Credit) Provision For Doubtful Debts Provision for bad debts is the estimated percentage of total doubtful debt that needs to be written off during the next…...

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Journal Entries and Differences between Provision & Contingent Liability

Provision Provision liability reduces an asset’s value because of a present obligation arising out of a past event The event which can result in a provisional liability may or may not occur. The estimated amount of the provisional liability is not certain Any increase or decrease in provision liability gets recorded in the Profit and…...

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Journal Entries and Differences between Accrued Payable & Accrued Expenses

Accrued Expenses Accrued Expenses is a term used in accounting where the expense is recorded in the books before it is paid for. Expenses are periodic and are listed on the balance sheet as Accrued Expenses as current liability in balance sheet such as Rent, wages, bank loan interest where payments are made monthly Interest…...

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Journal Entries for Dividend

Dividends are payments a company makes to share profits with its stockholders. They’re paid on a regular basis, and they are one of the ways investors earn a return from investing in stock. On Declaration : Retained Earnings…Dr To Dividend payable… Cr On Payment: Dividend Payable…Dr To Bank…Cr The entity may appropriate proposed dividend to…...

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What is EOM para? Does mention of this lead to qualification?

As per SA 706 EOM is a paragraph included in auditors report that relates to the matters appropriately presented or disclosed in the financial statement and in auditors’ judgement is of importance for users of financial statements. Examples where it is necessary to include EOM paragraph – An uncertainty relating to the future outcome of…...

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Types of Audit Report? Difference between General Purpose Audit Report and Special Purpose Audit Report?

Types of Audit Reports: 1. Unqualified Audit Report: The auditor issues an unqualified audit report to financial statements when auditors found no material misstatements after their testing. Therefore, this report contains an unqualified opinion from an independent auditor. 2. Qualified Audit Report: The qualified Audit report is the reported issue by auditors to the financial…...

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What are the new requirements in CARO 2020

To enhance the scope of the audit, the MCA in consultation with the National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA) released the CARO 2020. It lists out the subject matters on which the applicable companies are mandatorily required to report. CARO 2020 is applicable for all statutory audits commencing on or after 1 April 2021 corresponding to…...

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What is sampling? How do you choose samples? Sampling Methods? ‘Audit sampling’ refers to

‘Audit sampling’ refers to the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within a population relevant under the audit, such that all sampling units (i.e. all the items in the population) have a chance of selection (EQUAL chance in case of random sampling). This is to ensure that the items selected represent…...

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What do you mean by Nature, Timing and Extent of Audit?

Nature covers what audit procedures will be performed for the company. Changing the nature of an auditor’s substantive testing requires the auditors to take an effective approach to testing. Timing indicates when the audit procedures will be performed. Changing the timing of auditor’s substantive testing ensures reliable evidence such as interim, or year end. Extent…...

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What are the objectives of the entity behind the imposition of controls? Benefits of Understanding of Internal Control? Limitations of Internal Control?

Internal Controls are the policies and procedures that a company implements to ensure efficiency of business operations, reliability of financial reporting, compliance with laws & regulations, safeguarding of assets and prevention of frauds. Objectives of Internal Control A. Transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; B. all transactions are promptly recorded…...

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What are the deficiencies of control (Specifically asking about Design Deficiency and Operating Effectiveness)?

A deficiency in internal control over financial reporting exists when the design or operation of a control does not allow management or employees, in the normal course of performing their assigned functions, to prevent or detect misstatements on a timely basis. A deficiency in design exists when (a) a control necessary to meet the control…...

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What are preventive and Detective Controls? Give an example.

Preventive controls include security mechanisms, tools, or practices that can mitigate undesired actions. An example of preventive control is firewalls, anti virus software etc. Detective controls are designed to find and verify whether the preventive or corrective controls are working. Detective controls are designed to detect errors. Examples include audit trails, logs and CCTVs. Note:…...

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What is Internal Audit?

Internal Audit means “An independent management function, which involves a continuous and critical appraisal of the functioning of an entity with a view to suggest improvements thereto and add value to and strengthen the overall governance mechanism of the entity, including the entity’s strategic risk management and internal control system”. Favorite… To get access, please...

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What are controls? How are they different from Procedures?

Procedures are the systems that are set in place to meet the established standards of the organization. 1. Processes are the actions performed by accounting personnel that are not controls. Controls, on the other hand, are the actions that ensure safety and accuracy. 2. A process is what is being done while Controls ensure accuracy…...

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Difference between Vouching and Verification?

Vouching and verification are two different auditing procedures that are used to assess the accuracy and validity of financial transactions and records. Vouching refers to the process of examining and evaluating supporting documentation for a transaction to ensure that it is valid and authorized. This typically involves reviewing invoices, receipts, and other documentation to confirm…...

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What are substantive Audit Procedures?

Substantive procedure may be defined as an audit procedure designed to detect material misstatements at the assertion level. Substantive procedures comprise: (i) Tests of details (of classes of transactions, account balances, and disclosures), and (ii) Substantive analytical procedures. Analytical procedure is the process of analyzing plausible relationships among data including both financial and non-financial data…....

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Explain in brief what is Audit opinion and types of Audit Opinion?

An auditor’s opinion is a certification that accompanies financial statements. It is based on an audit of the procedures and records used to produce the statements and delivers an opinion as to whether material misstatements exist in the financial statements. The auditor shall express an unmodified opinion when the auditor concludes that the financial statements…...

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What is the first step you take when you start Audit of a new client?

First step in the audit process is planning. Planning an audit involves: (a) Establishing the overall audit strategy (b) Developing an audit plan. “The auditor should plan his work to enable him to conduct an effective audit in an efficient and timely manner. Plans should be based on knowledge of the client’s business”. Plans should…...

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What is the Risk of Material Misstatements? What would you do when you identify any material misstatement?

Risk of material misstatement: It may be defined as the risk that the financial statements are materially misstated prior to audit. This consists of two components described as follows at the assertion level: Inherent risk—The susceptibility of an assertion to a misstatement that could be material before consideration of any related controls Control risk—The risk…...

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